Lumbar Spine Disorders and Treatments

Lumbar spine disorders are common issues that may cause significant discomfort and impact daily life. Understanding these disorders and the available treatment options at our Lexington injury clinic is crucial for anyone seeking relief.

Introduction to the Lumbar Spine

The lumbar spine is the lower part of the spinal column, consisting of five vertebrae labeled L1 through L5. These vertebrae are larger than those in the cervical and thoracic regions because they bear much of the body’s weight and provide stability and movement. Located between the thoracic spine and the sacrum, the lumbar spine plays a critical role in the overall structure and function of the back.

Each lumbar vertebra is separated by intervertebral discs that act as cushions, absorbing shock and allowing for flexibility. The lumbar spine’s anatomy includes the vertebral bodies, the intervertebral discs, the facet joints, and the spinal canal that houses the spinal cord and nerves. This complex structure enables a wide range of motion and supports various bodily functions.

What Are the Functions of the Lumbar Spine?

The lumbar spine is integral to the body’s movement, providing flexibility and enabling actions such as bending, twisting, and lifting. Its design allows for significant mobility while maintaining stability, essential for daily activities.

Protects Your Spinal Cord and Cauda Equina

The lumbar spine protects the spinal cord and the cauda equina, a bundle of nerves at the lower end of the spinal cord. This protection is vital for maintaining nerve function and overall neurological health.

Supports Your Upper Body, Distributes Body Weight

The lumbar spine supports the upper body and distributes body weight evenly. This support is crucial for posture and balance, reducing strain on other parts of the body.

Controls Leg Movement

The nerves in the lumbar spine control leg movement, playing a key role in walking, running, and other lower body activities. Proper function of these nerves is essential for mobility and coordination.

What Diseases and Disorders Affect Your Lumbar Spine?

Among the spine affecting conditions, lumbar spine disorders are the most common, as an NLM study shows. Here are a few of the most important disorders:

Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is a common condition that can result from various causes, including muscle strain, injury, or degenerative changes in the spine. It can range from mild discomfort to severe, debilitating pain.

According to 2019 data from the NHIS, over 30% of adults were experiencing back pain and lumbar back pain in the U.S.


Sciatica occurs when the sciatic nerve is compressed or irritated, leading to pain that radiates from the lower back down through the legs. It is often caused by a herniated disc or spinal stenosis.

Muscle Spasm

Muscle spasms in the lower back can result from overuse, injury, or underlying spinal conditions. These involuntary contractions can cause significant pain and limit mobility.


Spondylolisthesis involves the slipping of one vertebra over another, leading to pain and instability in the lower back. It can result from congenital factors, injury, or degenerative changes.

Lumbar Stenosis

Lumbar stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back, which can compress the spinal cord and nerves, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.

Vertebral Compression Fracture

A vertebral compression fracture occurs when a vertebra collapses, often due to osteoporosis or trauma. This can lead to severe pain and loss of height.

lower back pain indicates a spine problem

Herniated Disk

A herniated disk in the lumbar spine occurs when the soft inner material of a spinal disc pushes through its outer layer, irritating nearby nerves and causing pain, numbness, and weakness.

Lumbar Lordosis or “Swayback”

Lumbar lordosis, or swayback, is an exaggerated inward curve of the lower back. It can lead to pain and posture problems if severe.

Degenerative Disk Disease

Degenerative disk disease involves the breakdown of intervertebral discs, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced flexibility in the lower back.

Adult Scoliosis

Adult scoliosis is a curvature of the spine that develops in adulthood, often due to degenerative changes. It can cause pain and affect posture and mobility.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is a serious condition where the cauda equina nerves are compressed, leading to severe pain, weakness, and potential loss of bowel or bladder control. Immediate medical attention is required.

How Are Lumbar Spine Disorders Diagnosed?

If you suspect you may be suffering from a lumbar spine condition, a medical professional should be the first person to contact. They can recommend one or a combination of tests to confirm your disease:

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

A CT scan provides detailed cross-sectional images of the spine, helping to diagnose conditions such as herniated discs, fractures, and spinal stenosis.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the spine’s soft tissues, making it useful for diagnosing disc problems, nerve compression, and tumors.


X-rays are often the first imaging test used to diagnose spinal conditions, providing images of the bones and alignment of the spine.

Electromyogram (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Studies

EMG and nerve conduction studies assess the electrical activity of muscles and the function of nerves, helping to diagnose conditions like radiculopathy and nerve damage.


A myelogram involves injecting contrast dye into the spinal canal before taking X-rays or CT scans. It helps to visualize the spinal cord and nerves, aiding in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis and other conditions.

How Are Lumbar Spine Health Issues Treated?

For many lumbar spine conditions, non-surgical treatments are the first line of defense. These can include physical therapy, which involves exercises and stretches to improve flexibility, strength, and posture.

Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants can help manage symptoms. Lifestyle modifications, including weight management, ergonomic adjustments, and stress reduction, are also essential.

In cases where non-surgical treatments are ineffective, surgery may be necessary. Surgical options vary depending on the specific condition and severity. Common procedures include:

  • Discectomy: Removal of a herniated disc to relieve nerve pressure.
  • Laminectomy: Removal of part of the vertebra to decompress the spinal cord or nerves.
  • Spinal Fusion: Fusing two or more vertebrae to stabilize the spine and reduce pain.

Reach Out to Our Lexington Injury Center for Lumbar Pain Relief!

With a variety of diagnostic tools and treatment options available, managing these conditions effectively can lead to significant improvements in quality of life. Whether through non-surgical methods or surgical interventions, addressing lumbar spine disorders promptly and appropriately is key to maintaining overall health and well-being. Our pain management professionals in Lexington will be happy to help you get through the worst part of your condition without too much of a hassle. Reach out to us today, and let’s get you on a path to a life without pain.